A glance at the 1847 tithe map for Abercwmboi reveals how rural the district was at this time, with only three properties being shown within the area we now know as Abercwmboi. These being, Penrhiw Anghan, Abercwmboy Ucha and Blaencwmboy. By 1868 however, the first edition Ordnance Survey map reveals a very different picture, with a number of recognisable streets appearing, including John Street, Jenkin Street, Richards Street, Margaret Street and William Street.
The reason for this rapid development can be seen further to the South, it being the presence of Abercwmboi Colliery. For just as with other villages in the Cynon valley it was the sinking of a colliery within the district, which sparked the growth of the modern village we know today. With houses being built to accommodate the sudden influx of people that such collieries brought and public amenities being established to serve the needs of these people.
The names of some of the earliest establishments such as the Cap Coch Inn built in 1865 and the Cap Coch School built in 1868 reflect the former name of the village. Local legend has it that Cap Coch derived its name from a local publican who wore a red cap on cockfighting occasions.
Places of worship were also established. One of the earliest being Bethesda
Welsh Baptist Chapel built in 1864. The established church did not have a place of worship until an iron built St Peter's Church, was constructed around 1918. Abercwmboi Workmen's Hall and Institute, which was a two-storied building, built in 1913, was the focal point of village life at that time.